Glaucoma is damage to the optic nerve resulting in damage to the visual field.
The eye is connected to the brain via the optic nerve. There is ordinarily a rate of decay of nerve fibres within this nerve with age. An acceleration of the rate of decay, such that a patient loses vision in their lifetime will occur in glaucoma. There are several types and causes of glaucoma. It is often asymptomatic as peripheral vision is lost before central vision and this warrants surveillance in high risk patients.
Treatment for glaucoma involves addressing any underlying causes as well as reducing the pressure in the eye via laser, medication or surgery.